The attractiveness, inferences and images of written advertisements in Australian Magazines

Tjitrakusuma, Nani Indrajani (2004) The attractiveness, inferences and images of written advertisements in Australian Magazines. Masters thesis, Widya Mandala Catholic University Surabaya.

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In real life, advertisements are available everywhere and it is a fact that corporations are able to persuade people to buy their products and have a good sale because of their advertisements. Therefore, in this study the writer is eager to find how the verbal and pictorial verbal texts in written advertisements could be attractive to and retained by consumers and what inferences and images the verbal and pictorial verbal texts of written advertisements convey. This study is focused on the interpretation of the inferences based on pragmatics theories and the association of the verbal and pictorial verbal texts in written advertisements so that both the inferences and images of the written advertisements can be found. Through the theory on model of international mass communication process, it is clear that advertising has objectives set by manufacturer or marketer as the advertiser. To inform the messages in the advertisement, advertising agency should encode the message and select mass media to carry the message to the viewers or readers who would think, feel and act on the stimulus. To achieve the objectives of selling the product, advertisers should be able to attract people's attention to read the advertisements, to convince them that the advertised products are the ones they need in their lives and finally to persuade them to buy the product. To achieve this purpose, the advertisers make use of the verbal and pictorial verbal texts in written advertisements. Through the use of psychological theory on consumer behavior, it could be seen that in order to attract readers' attention, advertisers should pay attention to two major factors that affect attention, namely: personal or individual determinants and stimulus determinants. This study is a content analysis and the approach is qualitative approach in which the researcher acts as the key instrument. The data analysis is based on interpretation. The inferences and images in the advertisements will be identified and qualitatively described and analyzed from the point of view of content analysis. The subjects of this study are written colorful advertisements taken from various Australian magazines - The Australian Women's Weekly, Woman's Day, Good Housekeeping, Family Circle, and Seventeen. The advertisements are product advertisements, concerning the products of cosmetics, food, clothes, and dinnerware. The procedures of data analysis involve collecting the data and analyzing the data using qualitative method and through the pragmatics theory, theories on Relevance Communication and Cognition, cultural values and advertising, and psychological theory on consumer behavior. Through the use of these theories, the writer is able to find out the inferences and images conveyed by the verbal and pictorial verbal texts of written advertisements. To measure the validity of this study, the researcher uses triangulation which consists of combined level of triangulation and methodological triangulation, that is, within methods triangulation. Through the analysis, it is found that the analyzed advertisements use personal or individual determinants of attention namely need or motivation, attitudes, and span of attention. Moreover, it is found that the advertisements also use stimulus determinants of attention which include the size, color, intensity, contrast, position, and isolation. The aspects of persuasive styles of advertising discourse found in the analyzed advertisements include deviation, pronoun, polysemy / pun, metonymy, (pictorial) metaphor, and (pictorial) simile. However, parallelism and cohesive device could not be found in the analyzed advertisements because not all of the advertising discourse above would be used together in one advertisement; instead the advertisers could choose the appropriate ones based on their product types. From the ten analyzed advertisements, it is found that the verbal and pictorial verbal texts of the advertisements could be attractive to and retained by the consumers because all of them had attention and retention getting aspects. Based on the findings, including the findings of the triangulagtion, advertisements could easily attract readers' attention and be retained in their memory because of the big size of the advertisement itself as a whole, the verbal texts/letters and the pictures. To make the advertisements retained in the readers' mind, besides using pictures, advertisers also used concrete words, mnemonic device and repetition. Besides, it is found that all advertisements had inferences and images through the use of verbal and pictorial verbal texts in the advertisements. The inferences consisted of explicature and implicature. The inferences were sometimes difficult to find, especially for Indonesian people because of the different cultural background. Moreover, people need to have the pragmatics knowledge, especially the discourse of advertising in order to understand inferences in advertisements. The writer hopes that through this study, students of English Department would realize that advertisements contain a great deal of inferences - explicature and implicature and they would have better insights concerning advertisements so that they are able to give the right interpretation of the inferences and images found in the advertisements. It is expected that this study would also give insights to English teachers in choosing materials. They could use advertisements as authentic additional materials in some classes such as pragmatics, reading, or writing - especially creative writing classes and train students to think critically. Due to what has been found in this research, it is suggested that further research on other written advertisements such as from magazines, newspapers or leaflets could be conducted to find the discourse styles and other psychological processes for attracting attention and for getting retention that are not covered in the analyzed advertisements since it is impossible to find all of the aspects above in just a few advertisements. Besides, researches on other types of advertisements, such as leaflets or brochures concerning more on the pictures, colors and language would be advisable, especially on the pictorial metaphor, pictorial simile or the images. It would also be advisable to conduct a further research on pragmatics to find out the meanings of the written advertisements and other research on discourse analysis to find out the other types of discourse except what has been found in written advertisements in magazines. Another suggestion would be further research on oral advertisements which focuses more on the sound or oral language so that the detailed differences between oral and written advertisements could be compared. As a conclusion, not all which are written or described in advertisements are true or really useful since advertisers usually manipulate the verbal texts through the use of advertising discourse in such a way that what could be seen from the outside are usually the positive sides of the products as the image only. Even the pictorial verbal texts are used to create good images about the product. Therefore, readers should be critical in reading advertisements.

Item Type: Thesis (Masters)
Department: ["eprint_fieldopt_department_Graduate School" not defined]
Uncontrolled Keywords: Text, verbal text, pictorial verbal text, image, inference, magazine, advertisement
Subjects: English Education
Divisions: Graduate School > Master Program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language
Depositing User: Sri Kusuma Dewi
Date Deposited: 29 Aug 2016 09:50
Last Modified: 29 Aug 2016 09:50

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